Jump to content

Lincoln Link-Lincoln Motor Car Heritage Museum


Recommended Posts

Linking together a The LINCOLN The LINCOLN ll elements of the lincoln motor car heritage LINK spring 2018 2 the lincoln link ■ THE LINCOLN LINK is the official newsletter of The Lincoln Motor Car Heritage Museum and Research Foundation, Inc., Gilmore Car Museum, 6865 Hickory Road, Hickory Corners, Michigan 49060. Opinions expressed herein do not necessarily represent or reflect Foundation policy. Newsletter contributions should be sent to the address above. ■ Earlier issues of The LINCOLN LINK are available as back issues. Price is $5 each, postpaid. ■ MEMBERSHIP IN THE LINCOLN MOTOR CAR FOUNDATION Membership categories: $25 Annual; $100 Annual Sustaining; $1000 Annual Corporate; $1000 Lifetime (or four payments of $250); Memorial ($500 minimum, please provide name of honoree). Send your name and a check to: Cornerstone Registration Ltd., P.O. Box 1715, Maple Grove, Minnesota 55311- 6715, or call 866 427 7583 and pay by credit card. Contact them by e-mail at LCOC@cornerstonereg.com. ■ On our covers: Front, a Lincoln of the early 1920’s makes a dignified presence before the U.S. Capitol building. Back cover: An ad for the 1950 Lincoln Cosmopolitan. ■ Lincoln Link Available to Foundation Members Only. Beginning with the next issue (Fall 2018), The Lincoln Link will be available to foundation members only. Information on how to become a member appears above or visit the LMCF web site: www.lincolncarmuseum.org Lincoln Motor Car Foundation BOARD OF DIRECTORS David W. Schultz Chairman & CEO James D. Blanchard, Jr. President & COO, Museum Director Earle O. Brown, Jr. Executive Vice President Bruce M. Kopf Treasurer C. Joel Dickson Secretary John t. “Jack” Eby Chairman Emeritus Robert Anderson Gerald A. Capizzi Chris Dunn James D. Farley+ Joy Falotico* Dennis R. Garrett Al Giombetti Darryl B. Hazel Robert Johnson Jack Juratovic Vaughn A. Koshkarian Lee R. Misowski James Muller H. Gene Nau David W. Roycroft, M.D. Jack Shea John L. Sweet Jack Telnack Paul C. Temple Thomas Brunner, President, Lincoln-Zephyr Owners Club Mike Denney, Director, Road Race Lincoln Register John Talbourdet, President, Lincoln and Continental Owners Club Eric van den Beemt, President, Lincoln Owners Club + Executive Vice President and President, Europe, Middle East and Africa, Ford Motor Company * Vice President, Ford Motor Company and President, The Lincoln Motor Company The LINCOLNLINK spring 2018 CONTENTS 3 Chairman’s Message: notes from David Schultz 4 Support Companies Who’ve Supported Lincoln Motor Car Heritage Museum 5 The Museum Endowment Fund by John T. Eby 6 Joy Falotico Named President of Lincoln 7 Leland, Lincoln, and the Liberty Aircraft Engine by John T. Eby 13 Museum Momentum: a report from Jim Blanchard 14 Fifth Annual Lincoln Homecoming This August 15 Into the Future with Lincoln 16 Featured Lincoln Enthusiast: Dennis Carpenter 3 spring 2018 A Message from the Chairman T he big news for this year is the upcoming annual Lincoln Homecoming, which will be held on August 10-12 at the Lincoln Motor Car Heritage Museum. You’ll find complete information elsewhere in this issue (as well as on the LMCF website), so I won’t go into details here.) One of the four clubs that helped create our Lincoln museum is celebrating its 50th anniversary this year; the Lincoln-Zephyr Owners Club was founded in 1968. It will be a special weekend for the LZOC. I expect to see many Zephyrs and early Continentals. Prior to the Homecoming at Hickory Corners, the LZOC is holding a 50th anniversary meet in northern Indiana. You probably saw the big news out of Ford Motor Company—a new president has been named for the Lincoln Motor Company. Effective March 1, Joy Falotico succeeded Kumar Galhotra, who was promoted to group vice president and president, Ford North America. Falotico is a 29-year veteran with Ford Motor Company. We wish her well in the continuing resurgence of the Lincoln marque. In April, Vaughn Koshkarian, Jim Muller, Jim Blanchard and I received a tour of the Lincoln Design Studios from David Woodhouse, Lincoln’s design chief. In addition to seeing these marvelous facilities and seeing Lincolns in several stages of design development, we learned from David and his team that the Lincoln museum will be receiving on loan a 1/10 scale clay model of the new Lincoln Continental. It’s scheduled to arrive prior to the 2018 Homecoming in August and will be displayed in a custom Plexiglas case. Jim Blanchard’s goal is continue to expand the Lincoln design legacy story, going back to E.T. “Bob” Gregorie. The collection of vehicles in our museum continues to grow. Our latest arrival is a very original 1954 Lincoln Capri that was purchased new by a Toledo, Ohio, family that owned and drove Lincolns for years. Another very unique vehicle is very likely on its way to the museum. If you attend the 2018 Homecoming you’ll see it. As I write this, most of us who live in the northern parts of the United States have gotten our vintage Lincolns back on the road for another season of enjoying our automobiles. For me, this is why we own these cars—for the unequalled enjoyment of driving them. I’ll take a drive in the country over an award every time! Your LMCF trustees and the Lincoln museum committee continue to develop and maintain a world-class automotive museum that “tells the Lincoln story.” We’ve received numerous accolades from visitors commending us on the quality of our museum. As I continue to say, our museum has been built, but much work remains. Your LMCF trustees are working to build the endowment fund that ensures continued operation of your museum for years to come. If you’re already a museum supporter, thank you. If not, now is the time. For those of you looking ahead, your LMCF trustees have created a Legacy Society, for those individuals who will remember the foundation in their planned giving and estate planning. If you have questions contact any museum trustee. See you at Hickory Corners in August. —David W. Schultz LMCF Chairman and CEO the lincoln link 4 EDITOR David W. Schultz 1221 Providence NE, Chestnut Hills Massillon, Ohio 44646-4105 GRAPHIC DESIGN Richard L. Cole Graphics Ltd. 200 E. Fesler St., Suite 206 Santa Maria, California, 93454 photography Walter Herip, John Walcek, Bruce Kopf The Lincoln Motor Car Heritage Museum and Research Foundation, Inc. Gilmore Car Museum 6865 Hickory Road Hickory Corners, Michigan 49060 lincolncarmuseum.org n The Lincoln Motor Car Heritage Museum is for you! America’s passionate love affair with the Lincoln automobile continues to inspire new generations. This is demonstrated in a variety of ways, including the formation of affinity clubs in which enthusiasts can share their interest in a particular brand or segment of the automotive market, past and present. The Lincoln automobile has inspired the creation of four major affinity clubs. These have inspired the Lincoln Motor Car Foundation, its Museum and its work of Sharing the Living Legacy of the Lincoln Motor Cars. The Grand Opening of the Lincoln Motor Car Heritage Museum took place August 9, 2014. We invite you to explore what we have to offer and visit the Museum located on the Gilmore Car Museum Campus in Hickory Corners, Michigan. The Museum is open Monday through Friday from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m, Saturday and Sunday from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. The 3rd Annual Lincoln Homecoming, the annual gathering of the four Lincoln clubs at the museum, will take place at the museum August 10-13, 2017. Join in the fun! The LINCOLN LINK A number of companies that supply parts and services to the Lincoln collector car market have stepped up and become sponsors of the Lincoln Motor Car Heritage Museum. The LMCF board of trustees encourages members of all Lincoln clubs to support these companies. And, when you do so, thank them for supporting our Lincoln Motor Car Heritage Museum! • Mervin B. Adkins • Automotive Restorations (J. Stephen Babinsky) • Automotive Fine Arts Society • Dennis Carpenter Ford Restoration Parts • Earle Brown • Ford Motor Company • Grundy Insurance • Imagination the Americas • Lincoln Land (Chris Dunn) • Lucas Classic Tires • National Parts Depot • Reliable Carriers, Inc. • The Lincoln-Mercury Old Parts Store • Ray Theriault • Crest Lincoln, Sterling Heights, Michigan • Zeigler Lincoln, Kalamazoo, Michigan • Sesi Lincoln, Ann Arbor, Michigan • Pfeiffer Lincoln, Grand Rapids, Michigan Support Companies Who’ve Supported Lincoln Motor Car Heritage Museum spring 2018 5 Museum Endowment Fund Total Approaches $1 Million: Great Progress, But More Contributors Required by Jack Eby LMCF Chairman Emeritus T he Lincoln Motor Car Heritage Museum, conceived and built by the memberships of the four Lincoln affinity clubs, continues to be a major attraction at the Gilmore Car Museum in Hickory Corners, Michigan. The Lincoln museum solicits rave reviews for its classic architecture and the sophisticated manner utilized to present the history of the Lincoln automotive brand with images, text, memorabilia, vehicles and audiovisual effects. The 15,000-square-foot Lincoln museum was constructed on land that Lincoln leased from the Gilmore Foundation; however, the building, furnishings and collections are owned by the clubs through the Lincoln Motor Car Foundation. This approach was selected to take advantage of the Gilmore infrastructure and staff, thereby alleviating the clubs of the ongoing burden of managing a museum. The Gilmore provides complete caretaking and administration of the Lincoln building, exterior grounds, and Lincoln’s share of the overall Gilmore complex. The Gilmore charges Lincoln for those services in addition to the cost of the rent of the land. The partnership between the Gilmore and the Lincoln Motor Car Foundation assures the longterm viability of the Lincoln museum and relieves the clubs and their foundation from the day-to-day operating and personnel issues inherent with owning a museum facility. It also allows the clubs and their visitors to access and utilize the Gilmore facilities and amenities. This arrangement, of course, comes with a price, and that price was known to exist when the museum project was approved. The challenge that the clubs assumed when the building project was approved was to raise funds on an ongoing basis to meet our annual obligation to continually improve the museum while paying the charges to the Gilmore for rent and maintenance. The Gilmore fees are indexed for inflation and currently are running about $60,000 per year. At approval, it was anticipated that the ongoing costs would be met with a combination of funds from museum memberships, annual contributions, bequests, income from the annual Lincoln weekend, and income from endowment funds. It was recognized that we would all have to all pull together to fund the initial building cost and to cover the annual operating costs due the Gilmore. The museum building and collections are debtfree; however, we have a perpetual contingent liability for the rent and maintenance of the facility. The initial museum endowment fund was established as a sequestered fund with the income dedicated to the maintenance and rent of the building and exhibits. The first objective is $1.5 million. Assuming that all of the pledges are met, about $1 million has been raised. This and subsequent funds will be conservatively invested and utilized to partially offset the rent and maintenance costs for the museum facility. Jerry Capizzi and Chris Dunn have generously stepped forward and volunteered to match the first $250,000 contributed. That offer is rapidly expiring. The most immediate objective is to raise the remaining $500,000 to complete the first endowment fund. In this endeavor, a concerted effort by all of the members of the clubs is needed in order to assure success. Dynamic and creative leadership is expected from the officers and board members of the clubs and the foundation. The long-term future of the museum depends on our collective efforts. the lincoln link 6 Joy Falotico Named President of Lincoln Motor Company J oy Falotico, 50, has been named group vice president, Lincoln Motor Company, and chief marketing officer, succeeding Kumar Galhotra, who has been appointed group vice president and president, Ford North America. Galholtra will be responsible for leading all aspects of Ford’s North American business. Galhotra and Falotico will report to Jim Farley, Ford executive vice president and president, Global Markets. Falotico is responsible for leading the continued evolution of Lincoln as a world-class luxury brand. She oversees all Lincoln operations globally, including product development; marketing, sales and service; and all team members supporting the brand. She will also lead the company’s Marketing function and efforts to connect more closely with customers by identifying new opportunities to serve them. Falotico will remain chairman of the Ford Motor Credit Company board of directors. Since October 2016, Falotico has been group vice president and chairman and CEO, Ford Motor Credit Company, a leading global automotive financial services company with $151 billion in receivables and Ford’s second-largest profit contributor. In 29 years at Ford Credit, she has served in a number of executive positions around the world, including leading Marketing and Sales, working side-by-side with Ford to support sales and dealer success, and strengthening consumer and dealer service. “Joy has been a driving force behind not only Ford Credit’s consistently strong financial performance, but also its business model innovation and transition to a digital customer platform,” Farley said. “She brings marketing experience and a deep customer focus as Ford enters a very busy new product launch period to drive growth in revenue and profitability.” In announcing the leadership changes, Ford President and CEO Jim Hackett said Ford is “very fortunate to have an experienced and committed executive team in place driving every day to significantly strengthen our business while building toward our vision of becoming the world’s most trusted mobility company, designing smart vehicles for a smart world.” Galhotra, a 29-year veteran of the company, has served in a variety of senior-level engineering and product strategy positions around the world. In addition, since 2014, he led Lincoln Motor Company, revitalizing the luxury brand’s model lineup and developing a world-class customer experience. He also served as the company’s chief marketing officer since last year. Falotico was recognized by Automotive News as one of the 100 Leading Women in the North American Auto Industry in 2010 and 2015. Born in 1967, Falotico holds a bachelor’s degree in business administration from Truman State University and a master’s degree in business finance from DePaul University. n Joy Falotico and Jim Farley share a smile at the preview of the 2020 Lincoln Aviator, a three-row luxury SUV that promises to elevate the senses. Inside, an open and airy interior awaits to surround drivers and passengers alike with comfort. spring 2018 7 by John T. Eby A s World War I raged on through 1915 and 1916, the debate about American entry into the war consumed the attention of the U.S. public. The American government, led by President Woodrow Wilson, was a unique blend of isolationists, pacifists, and those who truly believed that the Americans could facilitate the brokering of a peace. Most of the popular press, on the other hand, was actively agitating for American intervention on the side of the Western Allies, Britain and France. Henry Leland, the president of the Cadillac Motor Company, a subsidiary of General Motors, frequently traveled in Europe and had many professional and personal contacts there. Based on those trips and meetings, he had sadly believed since 1913 that war in Europe was inevitable and that the United States would have to become involved. “Unless we intervene, our present civilization may be destroyed,” he was quoted as saying. Mr. Leland believed so strongly in the coming American role in the War that late in 1914 he personally met with Woodrow Wilson to promote American intervention, and, in particular, the fostering of an American aircraft industry. Mr. Wilson’s reply was, “Don’t worry, Leland—I’ll keep America out of war.” The cause of “Don’t get involved” was dealt a serious blow when, on May 7, 1915, off the southern coast of Ireland, the German submarine U-20 sank the British passenger liner Lusitania with an unannounced torpedo attack. The ship sank in twenty minutes with the loss of 1198 lives, including 128 Americans. The American public was enraged, and there were demands for an immediate declaration of war on Germany. The Wilson administration instead chose to use diplomacy, and solicited an agreement from the Germans to pay reparations and to cease submarine attacks on passenger ships without warning. A stalemate existed throughout 1916 on the Western Front in France. The war had deteriorated into deadly trench warfare and, after repeated attempts, both the Western Allies and the Central Powers led by Germany lost hope of gaining significant ground. The Germans, responding to the lack of progress against the French and British, and hoping to choke off supplies coming from North America, reinstated unrestricted submarine warfare early in 1917. Leland, Lincolnand the LibertyAircraft Engine The American automobile industry produced over 20,000 Liberty aircraft engines during World War I. Most of these engines were 400-horsepower V-12 engines. Note in this V-12 cross section the modern configuration of overhead valves and overhead dual camshafts. the lincoln link 8 This precipitous decision set the stage for American entry into the war on the side of the Western Allies—and ultimately the creation of the Lincoln Motor Company and Ford Motor Company’s production of luxury automobiles. On April 6, 1917, after the sinking of a number of American merchant vessels by German submarines, the United States declared war on the Central Powers. Already the British and French had been discussing their needs for men and equipment with the Americans, and on May 23, 1917, the French formally requested 4500 airplanes and 5000 pilots from the United States. Among the many problems facing the Americans as they prepared for a major war was how to procure a large number of reliable aircraft engines in a short period of time. This task was vital to complying with the French request for aircraft and also to meet the anticipated needs of the American forces. Henry Leland believed that it was necessary for the United States—and himself personally— to be involved in the War. He also was the most accomplished precision internal combustion engine manufacturer in the world, and he had a growing interest in seeing automotive engine technology and manufacturing methods applied to the rapidly emerging aircraft industry. Cadillac had the manpower, technology and facilities to be able to make an immediate contribution to the war effort. Cadillac had also recently purchased land on Clark Street in Detroit and erected a new building that could be quickly converted to aircraft engine production. Unfortunately, Cadillac’s involvement was not Henry Leland’s decision to make. Cadillac was part of General Motors, and Billy Durant, who controlled GM, initially refused to allow participation in the war effort. “This is not our war, and I will not permit any General Motors unit to do work for the government,” he told Wilfred Leland, Henry’s son, who was second in command at Cadillac. When the conversation was repeated to Henry Leland, he was devastated. He was also uncharacteristically vocally furious at the apparently uncompromising viewpoint of Billy Durant, which Mr. Leland viewed as unpatriotic. At that time, the United States had a very small aircraft engine industry that potentially could be expanded; however, a strategy of creating a new, standardized aircraft engine became the preferred approach. This program would pool the best available existing engine technologies, simplify engine maintenance, and harness the manufacturing capabilities of the U.S. automotive industry to build the engines. The resulting family of engines was named the U.S.A. Standardized Aircraft Engine, popularly known as the “Liberty” engine. O n June 3, 1917, after consultations with the British and French and some preliminary design work, the U.S. War Department cloistered a small engine design team in a suite of rooms at the new Willard Hotel in Washington, D.C. In a remarkable five days, by working twentyfour hours a day, the group had an initial design for a new, highperformance aircraft engine family. Jesse G. Vincent of Packard and Elbert J. Hall of Hall-Scott Motor the l i n c o l n l i n k Packard and Lincoln personnel review the first running prototype of the Liberty engine at the Detroit Packard plant on July 28, 1917. The prototype was an eight-cylinder configuration, but most of the Liberty production was the twelvecylinder version. Wilfred Leland is to the left of the engine. Henry Leland is immediately in front of the engine, discussing it with Alvan Macauley, president of Packard. Photo courtesy of NAHC, Detroit Public Library. spring 2018 9 Car Company from San Francisco led the team, supported by about two hundred people from a variety of other companies. The new engine family was water cooled, with coil ignition, overhead valves and overhead camshafts. It was designed to be built of standardized parts in four-cylinder and six-cylinder inline versions and eight- and twelve-cylinder variants in a forty-five-degree V configuration. The four, six and V-8 versions were never put into volume production; it was the 1650-cubicinch, 400-horsepower V-12 that became the most popular version. It is the V-12 configuration that comes to mind when one hears the term “Liberty Engine.” All of the major American automotive and aircraft manufacturers unselfishly contributed technology and personnel to creating the new engine, and the best international designs were copied. The forged, separate cylinders were copied from Rolls Royce and Mercedes; the fork-and-blade piston rod and crankshaft configuration from DeDion and Cadillac (Leland); the cam shaft and valve mechanism from Mercedes and Packard; the cam shaft, propeller hubs, crank shaft and piston designs from Hall-Scott; the water pump from Packard; and the carburetor from Zenith. The engines used Delco coil ignition systems and Allison bearings. The high-volume cylinder and piston rod bearing manufacturing techniques were developed by Ford. A working V-8 version of the engine was delivered to the U.S. Bureau of Standards on July 3, 1917, one month after the design process was initiated. A V-12 version of the engine passed a fifty-hour running test on August 25, 1917. This was a truly remarkable accomplishment in such a short period of time; however, the task of creating high volume, reliable production would be even more challenging! After Billy Durant’s curt refusal of GM involvement in the war effort, Henry and Wilfred Leland made plans to leave Cadillac and create a new company solely for the manufacture of aircraft engines. On July 3, 1917, they both left Cadillac, and, fully aware of the new standardized engine project, immediately left for Washington, D.C., to offer to the government their services and their plans to build a plant. E ven though they had a working prototype, the War Department was still in the midst of the design phase of the new engine and was not in a position to award contracts or make commitments for production. Though the military people were impressed with the capability and sincerity of the Lelands, they were asked to wait for the appropriate time. Above: At its peak production in 1918, Lincoln employed about 6000 people producing aircraft engines, including (left) this World War I version of Rosie the Riveter, seen welding Liberty engine water jackets. A great number of women were employed in manufacturing businesses during the war due to the shortage of men. Photo courtesy of NAHC, Detroit Public Library. the lincoln link 10 The Lelands were convinced that in order to shorten the war, it was vital to initiate a production plan for the new engine immediately. They wanted to be a key element of that plan. Without any commitment from the government, they returned to Detroit and purchased a small factory building and some adjoining residences on Holden Avenue. They utilized their own capital for the equipment, remodeling and expansion in preparation for the manufacture of aircraft engines. The reputation of the Lelands quickly attracted additional capital and people to their new enterprise, and the Lincoln Motor Company was incorporated on August 29, 1917, with an initial capital of $1,500,000 and with many of the Lelands’ old Cadillac associates. In August of 1917 the government called a meeting of the six preferred manufacturers for the new engines to discuss costs, volumes and contracts. Eventually contracts for the following V-12 engine volumes were signed: Packard, 6000 engines; Nordyke & Marmon, 3000 engines; Ford, 5000 engines; General Motors (Cadillac and Buick), 2000 engines (Billy Durant had reconsidered his position); and Lincoln, 6000 engines. On August 31, 1917, Lincoln was the first manufacturer to formally sign their contract. The Lincoln Motor Company plant on Holden Avenue had only about 110,000 square feet of office, warehouse and manufacturing space. The facility allowed the manufacture of fourteen of the new V-12 Liberty engines per day. The contract to which Lincoln had committed required the capability to manufacture seventy engines each day —a four hundred percent increase! New facilities were quickly needed, and again the Lelands did not hesitate. A suitable site at the end of the Warren Avenue trolley line in Detroit was found, but it would have to be assembled by joining a large number of parcels, some of which had already been subdivided for housing. After a rapid marathon set of negotiations, the Lelands successfully melded the separate pieces of property into a fifty-acre site adjoining a rail line. In September 1917 ground was broken for a complex of eight buildings with an aggregate floor space of 616,000 square feet, and on February 22, 1918, Lincoln formally took possession of the new buildings. The massive main manufacturing building was four stories high and ran for three city blocks along Livernois Avenue. During the construction of the new plant complex, Lincoln continued to perfect their production processes and to respond to the stream of engineering design changes at their Holden Avenue facilities. On February 4, 1918, the first Lincoln-built Liberty engine was produced at the Holden Avenue plant. Production gradually started to increase and was shifted to the new Warren Avenue facility. In the month of August, 1918, one year after the signing of their contract, Lincoln produced 851 engines; in October they produced 1111 engines. The five manufacturers produced a total of 4002 engines in October; only Ford was able to exceed Lincoln’s monthly rate. In a very short period of time, Lincoln and the rest of the American automotive industry had designed the state-of-the-art aircraft engine and reliably produced the l i n c o l n l i n k A gleaming array of completed Liberty twelve-cylinder aircraft engines awaits shipment at the Lincoln Motor Company plant. Lincoln manufactured 6500 such engines between February 1918 and January 1919. Photo courtesy of NAHC, Detroit Public Library. spring 2018 11 it in volumes unthinkable a year earlier. During that short period, Lincoln had also successfully planned, built and equipped a totally new facility within which to build the engine, and had remodeled and equipped a second facility. The entrance of the United States into the war and the failure of the German submarine program to stem the flow of men and supplies from North America dramatically shifted the balance on the Western Front in favor of the Western Allies. On November 11, 1918, an armistice was signed, ending hostilities in the Great War. The production of the Liberty aircraft engines slowed and ceased at Lincoln in January 1919. For four of the V-12 Liberty engine manufacturers, the end of aircraft engine production simply meant that they returned their facilities, assets and people to their previous automobile businesses. The Lincoln Motor Company had no such business to which to return, and it had huge facilities, a large debt, and 5600 employees. T he Lelands briefly considered using the Lincoln Motor Company facilities to manufacture engines for other automobile manufacturers, but the Lelands’ true interest was in producing automobiles. Henry and Wilfred Leland, who had created the Cadillac and its reputation for fine engineering and innovation, set out to create “the finest motor car ever built” —the Lincoln automobile. The company was reorganized and recapitalized, and the Warren Avenue facilities were quickly stripped and converted to vehicle manufacturing. Again, the Leland name and reputation attracted capital and people. In November, 1919, the first distributor for the coming Lincoln motor car was appointed, rapidly followed by fifteen more in the major cities in the country. The car was introduced on September 16, 1920, to great acclaim and interest from the public. Unfortunately for the Lelands, the introduction of their new vehicle occurred coincidentally with the 1920-21 post-war depression. Because of the economic problems, sales of all types of new vehicles plummeted and customers and dealers canceled orders. Walter Murphy, the Lincoln distributor in Los Angeles, flatly refused delivery of 400 Lincolns that were in transit or completed at the factory. Even Ford Motor Company was forced to shut indefinitely over the Christmas 1920 holiday for inventory adjustments. Lincoln sold only 700 vehicles from September through December 1920, falling far short of the 6000 vehicles that had been originally planned. As the economic situation in America worsened through 1921 and automobile sales continued to decline, Lincoln completely exhausted its working capital. The plant operated on a parttime basis, and prices were reduced in an attempt to stimulate sales, but to no avail. By the end of 1921, Lincoln had totally depleted its financial resources, and no additional capital was forthcoming. The only option left, in the opinion of the The Lincoln Motor Company was created to produce World War I Liberty aircraft engines. Henry Leland (far left) and Wilfred Leland (third from right) and the Lincoln management team examine engine number 6500 completed by Lincoln in January 1919. Photograph courtesy of the Detroit Public Library, National Automotive History Collection. the lincoln link 12 Lincoln Board of Directors—but not of the Lelands or William T. Nash—was receivership. Saturday, February 4, 1922, was a typical Detroit winter day—cold, gray and blustery. This was the day set by the Federal District Court for the auction of the assets of Lincoln Motor Company. The sale was to take place at 10 o’clock in the morning on the steps of the large, yellow brick Lincoln Motor administration building on Warren Avenue. Starting at about nine o’clock, spectators expecting Henry Ford to be the purchaser started to gather in front of the building. By 10 o’clock, when the court officer took his seat at a table in front of the main doors, three thousand people had gathered to witness this drama between two giants of the automobile industry. The auction proceeded quickly. Only three bidders had made deposits that qualified them for the sale. By prearrangement, Henry Ford’s agent, Harold Emmons, who strangely was also the Lelands’ attorney, bid eight million dollars. Since there were no other bids, the court officer accepted Ford’s offer, and after a short signing ceremony, the Lincoln Motor Company became the property of Henry Ford. The Lelands expected to stay with Lincoln and help with the management of the newest Ford division, and immediately after the sale they became Ford Motor Company employees. However, their management style was understandably different from Ford’s approach, and clashes quickly began to occur. The management situation continued to deteriorate, and within a few months the Lelands retired from the Ford Motor Company, ending their brief, but critical, association with the Lincoln automobile. T he Lelands, after so many significant contributions to the early years of the automotive industry, remained in Detroit, but faded into automotive history. Henry Leland died on March 26, 1932, at the age of 89, and Wilfred Leland died on January 20, 1958, at the age of 88. The famed, powerful Liberty engine, although obsolete, was used in aircraft until the early 1930’s, as a tank engine in World War II, and was a favorite of speedboat racers and rum runners during Prohibition. Liberty engines powered the Ford Motor Company’s first commercial airplanes, the 2-AT Air Pullmans which were used in scheduled service between Chicago, Detroit and Cleveland in 1925. Liberties also powered the first aerial crossing of the Atlantic in 1919 and the first circumnavigation of the globe in 1924. After its conversion to automobile production, the Lincoln Liberty engine plant was utilized continuously to build all of the Lincoln automobiles through the 1952 model year, with a break for World War II. It was razed in 2002. The Lincoln automobile continues to be produced in volumes that would have stunned, but also delighted, the Lelands. the l i n c o l n l i n k The Ford and Leland families strike a pose after the signing of the agreement for the purchase of the Lincoln Motor Company by the Ford Motor Company on February 4, 1923. The photograph was taken in the Lincoln Room of the Lincoln Motor Company administration building. From left: Henry Leland, Eleanor Ford, Edsel Ford, Clara Ford, Henry Ford, Blanche Leland, Wilfred Leland. Photograph courtesy of NAHC, Detroit Public Library. spring 2018 13 by James Blanchard Museum Director T his year holds promise for continued improvements at your museum in both displays and vehicles. We will be strengthening our LincolnZephyr kiosk with assorted dealership items in the display box. We continue to seek an additional K Lincoln from the early 1930s to strengthen our early Lincoln representation. We are about to finalize the donation of a 1954 Lincoln Capri—this car was purchased new in Toledo, Ohio, by Mark Mennel. We have a great photo of him with new 1935 Lincolns—his and hers. It’s a real testament to Lincoln brand loyalty! Vaughn Koshkarian, Jim Muller, David Schultz and I visited the Lincoln design center in Dearborn and accepted from David Woodhouse and his team a 1/10th scale clay styling model of the current Continental. This is very tastefully presented on a styling table with a Plexiglas cover. We will display it and work toward expanding our Lincoln design history display to include information about the E.T. Gregorie design years, leading up to the current time. Great strides are being made with our endowment. In an age when many museums run out of funds, we are blessed with a museum structure that is affordable to operate and secure in its surroundings, thanks to the Gilmore campus. We still seek financial independence into the future that ensures that the Lincoln story will be told. Please consider the Lincoln Foundation in your estate planning to make possible sharing your love of Lincolns for generations to come. Lincoln Motor Car Heritage Museum Report the lincoln link 14 T he fifth annual Lincoln Homecoming will be held August 10-12, 2018, at the Lincoln Motor Car Heritage Museum in Hickory Corners, Michigan. The highlight of this year’s Homecoming will be the 50th anniversary celebration of the Lincoln-Zephyr Owners Club (LZOC). This year’s Homecoming will be preceded by an LZOC 50th anniversary celebration event from August 6 to 9 in northern Indiana. The club has arranged visits to several Indiana automobile museums as well as other tourist spots. The annual Homecoming will kick off in Hickory Corners on Friday evening with cocktails and a banquet at the host hotel, followed by the annual charity auction. An all-Lincoln car show and Lincoln swap meet will be held on Saturday, followed by dinner at the Gilmore Car Museum. People’s Choice awards for Lincolns of each decade will be presented on Sunday. Complete details on the 2018 Homecoming are available on the LMCF web site: www.lincolncarmuseum.org. The meet chairman is Bob Johnson, who can be reached at arborbob41@ aol.com or (651) 257.1715. Fifth Annual Lincoln Homecoming August 10-12; LZOC Celebrates 50th n Lincoln Continentals and Zephyrs on display at the 2017 Homecoming. John Walcek photo spring 2018 15 Into the Future with Lincoln Continental Navigator Rhapsody the lincoln link 16 O ne of the key supporters of the Lincoln Motor Car Foundation is Dennis Carpenter of Charlotte, North Carolina, whose business, Dennis Carpenter Ford Restoration Parts, celebrates its 48th anniversary in 2018. The company manufactures licensed quality restoration parts for 1932-1972 Ford and Mercury cars and 1932-1996 Ford pickups. He also makes reproduction parts for 1939- 1964 Ford tractors and Cushman motor scooters. Mr. Carpenter donated one of the most significant automobiles in the Lincoln Motor Car Heritage Museum—a prototype of the Continental Mark II. When he learned that a Lincoln museum was being built, he told his good friend, Vaughn Koshkarian, an LMCF trustee, that he wanted the car in that museum. Dennis Carpenter Ford Restoration Parts is located in the heart of NASCAR country, in Concord, North Carolina, approximately 10 miles from downtown Charlotte. The company occupies approximately 300,000 square feet of manufacturing, warehousing and retail space. More than 160 employees are engaged in manufacturing or selling quality Ford parts. The company’s site includes a two-story building containing Mr. Carpenter’s personal collection of automobiles, scooters and memorabilia, most of it related to Ford Motor Company. (The Mark II Continental prototype, which he acquired in the 1990s, was part of that collection.) Mr. Carpenter’s parts business grew out of his desire to make a part he needed for his 1940 Ford. It didn’t take long to discover that other car restorers were facing the same challenges, and the rest, as the saying goes, is history. He ventured into Featured Lincoln Enthusiast: Dennis Carpenter n Dennis Carpenter (right) and son Daniel with Continental Mark II #9502, which is now on display at the Lincoln Motor Car Heritage Museum. spring 2018 17 CONTINENTAL MARK II PROTOTYPE #9502 n Three Continental Mark II prototypes were built: #9500, #9501 and #9502. The first two were hand-built, while the third car was the first car built on what became the Continental assembly line. Car #9502 was taken on a long test trip, accompanied by a 1955 Lincoln and a 1955 Cadillac. It was driven from Dearborn to Kingman, Arizona, then back to Dearborn through Texas and Louisiana, which tested the car’s air conditioning, among other mechanical components. All three prototypes were to be scrapped following testing. The first two were crushed, but #9502 was given to Advanced Lincoln Engineering for driveline angle studies before crushing. The president of the Henry Ford Museum learned of the car’s existence, sent a request to William Clay Ford Sr., and the car was cleaned up and delivered to the museum. It remained there until Harvey Firestone Jr. donated his Mark II to the museum. Amazingly, the museum chose to keep the Firestone car, and #9502 was sold to Elmer Rohn, a Ford engineer who had worked closely on the Mark II project. It had 32,000 miles on the odometer. He kept it until the 1990s, when it was acquired by Dennis Carpenter. Interestingly, Mr. Rohn compiled four typewritten pages of differences between #9502 and the production Mark II. Today, it is on display in the Lincoln Motor Car Heritage Museum in its original, unrestored condition. creating molded and extruded rubber products, followed by metal shaping, die casting, plastic injection molding, die cutting and metal parts fabrication. The company also produces original style interior panels, headliners and glove box liners. The company’s extensive New Old Stock Parts Library contains original examples of Ford weatherstripping and many other parts that serve as reference guides for producing a reproduction part. In 1998, Ford Motor Company allowed Carpenter’s company use of the original Ford factory tooling for many of their reproduction parts. Today, Mr. Carpenter’s son, Daniel, owns the company, having acquired it from his father in 2005, enabling Dennis Carpenter to focus on his core strength of developing new products and working with toll makers. Daniel Carpenter literally grew up in the business. At ten years old he was packing reproduction parts as well as assisting his father in his restoration work. Dennis Carpenter still works at the business every day. He notes that the knobs and weatherstripping he installed on his 1940 Ford in the 1970s are still good today. the lincoln link 18

Link to comment
Share on other sites

  • 2 weeks later...

Create an account or sign in to comment

You need to be a member in order to leave a comment

Create an account

Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy!

Register a new account

Sign in

Already have an account? Sign in here.

Sign In Now
  • Create New...