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Model A and T classroom lecture notes


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I am a retired teacher, but I still substitute quite a bit. In the last few years I have become imnvolved with vintafge cars again and now own a 1916 Model T Touring car and a 1931 Model A Standard Roadster. One of the reasons I bought them was to introcuce kids to the avocation of antique automobiles as well as the history associated with the two I bring in to show to them in both Auto Mechanics and History classes. In actuality, I am just a rank beginner, but I have done a lot of research on these two and am more than willing to share what I have with others, as others shared their information and references with me. If you havent brought one of these old beauties into a classroom of High School kids, by all means do so as I have found it an exceptionally rewarding experience. Just keep in mind, I am a FNG, and this is strictly a beginner's attempt, but it works for me in the classrolom. Sometimes I use all, sometimes I use parts of what is here. Also, this may not display the same way it is in the original form, but all the information should be there. Feel free to use whatever you want and if corrections, or additions are in order, please let me know.

: YEP, ACCORDING TO WHAT WAS ON THE PREVIEW, THE ORIGINAL FORMAT DID GET DISCOMBOBELATED A WEE BIT, BUT THE INFORMATION IS THERE. THE MODEL T TEST IS VERY SIMILAR TO THE MODEL A TEST, BUT I CAN'T FIND THE DISK THAT IT IS ON RIGHT NOW.

: THE MODEL ?A? FORD

: 1928 TO 1931

: Of over 5,000 automobiles built, prototyped, or trademarked in the United States since Ransom E. Olds tested the first American built and designed automobile in 1887, no vehicle has caused the sensation of the Model A Ford. Other vehicles, such as Henry Ford?s Ubiquitous Model T may have had a longer production run and impacted the transportation world more, but none has surpassed the Model A for shear marvel of, and anticipation for by the waiting public. In May of 1927, the last Model T rolled off the assembly line, and Ford Motor Company started retooling for the new Model A. After a record run of nineteen years, Ford was building an entirely new automobile and the public waited in suspense for the result. The first prototype Model A to be completed rolled off the assembly line on October 20th, 1927, and the inaugural showing of the Model A was on December 2, 1927 in Ford Show Rooms, the Detroit Convention Center, and at Madison Square Garden, etc. Henry?s new car was touted as, The Debutante of the Century, and this was the largest National event since the Armistice of 1918, resulting in over 30,000 orders the first day.

: Ford had not only stunned the automotive world with a new, modern, state of the art vehicle, but did it at a price most buyers could afford. The 1928 Tudor Model A was the same price as the 1927 Model T Tudor, $495, and the Roadster was only $25 dollars more than the Model T at $385. The first Model A?s were sold at a loss and Ford was in the red $72 million in 1928 due to taking a loss on each sale, and production problems with the radical switch over, but due to increased production, Ford realized a 92 million dollar profit in 1929, the first year of the Stock Crash.

: No other car up to that time had ever been prepared with such haste, presented with such brilliance, received with such enthusiasm, nor cloaked with such secrecy. The changeover from the Model T to the Model A was one of the best kept secrets and most striking achievements of the 20th century, and in some ways this was Ford?s undoing, as now the other manufacturers began to follow suit and make radical changes in production techniques and product lines that up until that time had remained fairly static year after year.

: TRANSITION PERIOD

: Early Cars

:

: First prototype completed, Oct. 20, 1927

: First mass production, Nov 1, 1927

: Very slow start-up on production line.

: Dealerships, employees, suppliers idled while Ford tooled-up.

: Some Dealers, Suppliers, and employees, suffered due to lack of pay and product to sell, others concentrated on service and sales of older Model T?s

: First Model A

: 1903, June to September. A two seater Runabout of 72? wheelbase, 100.4 cubic inch displacement, two opposed cylinder, 8 horsepower engine, planetary transmission, 2 F, 1/R, chain drive, with differential and band brakes. Early cars were called 1903, later were 1904 reportedly 670 built with around 150 being considered 1903.

: The Model A was replaced by the Model AC, Model B, Model F, Model K, Model N, Model R, Model S, Model T, and then back to the car we know today as the Model A.

:

: SECOND MODEL A

: Mass Production from November 1, 1927 to April 30, 1932 in the United States. Five million Model A?s built in the U.S. of the 1928 to 1931 models.

: DECLINE OF Model A

: December 1930, Chevrolet led Ford in sales by 1,958 units for the year.

: REASONS FOR DECLINE

: Competitive price, well built products from other manufacturers, hydraulic brakes, six and eight cylinder, as well as OHV engines, faster cruising speeds, better financing, buyers wanting to see what the new Ford V8 was going to be like, and what they would cost, Depression now in full swing. The Recovery really didn?t start until 1934, changing models from other manufacturers.

: MAIN COMPETITION

: Chevrolet, Plymouth, Willys, Essex - Studebaker

: Model A ceased continuous production, August 31, 1931 for retooling of the Model B, although Model A?s continued to be sporadically produced in the U.S. from remaining parts until April 30, 1932.

: SAID OF THE MODEL A

: Baby Lincoln, Man?s car at the beginning of a woman?s market. Asture in style, Masterful in design, Dependable in operation. Economical in service. Outsold, Outperformed, and Outlasted all competition in a market glutted with motorcar brands, even during the depression years. Earned a reputation akin to Rolls Royce (the Model A even looks like the British MG Models TC, TD, and TF, up to the mid 1950?s), Born of necessity, child of adversity, undeliberated sum of all that is had gone before. Distinctly Ford in background and features. A product of integration and compromise.

: THE WORLD?S MOST COLLECTIBLE CAR

: Reasons

: Drives like modern cars, economical, parts availability, durability, simplicity, cruising speed, safety features, price, number of cars available, style, sporty nature, good acceleration.

:

: HENRY?S STAND

: Ruthlessly fired all that disagreed with his views on the Model T and other Henry Ford ideas. Nearly banished his son Edsel to the West Coast for pushing the ideas of the Model A, even if he was the, in title, President of Ford Motor Company.

: Once Henry was convinced on the Model A, the car went from concept to product in less than one year, including plant redesign, and retooling.

: During the Model A era, many employees felt that Henry had lost his vision of Benevolent Dictatorship. Even though pay was good, working conditions were poor. Employees were pushed and verbally abused, you could be fired for little or no reason. No Unions were allowed at that time at Ford. Even during the worst of the Depression, 1932 to 1934, people quit rather than work under these conditions.

: Henry believed in Constant Improvements, rather than Yearly Models. The Model A was projected to last 15 years, but changes in industry and with the competition were coming too fast now.

: Henry felt 4 cylinder, big bore, moderate RPM engines were superior to 6 cylinder engines for several reasons:

:

: More Practical

:

: Power Stroke

: One set of pistons at top, one set at bottom

: Intake Manifolds

: Same Length

: Uniform fuel charge

:

: Hammer Head Distributor Cap and Springs (wires)

: Same length for current to travel to spark plug

: Uniform spark at plug

:

: Cooling System

: Thermosyphon, Fan, and Water Pump

: Oiling

: Splash, Gravity, and Pump

:

: Employee Relations

: As far as race distinction in the workplace -- up to a point -- Ford treated all employees equally, Blacks and other minorities were often put in charge, if their talents warranted it, but the work was hard, and rules inflexible. You liked Ford, or you hated him.

: Ford Quotes:

: ?We make no attempt at Ford to coddle the people who work with us.?

: ? A great business is really too big to be human.?

:

: EDSEL FORD

: Instigator, protagonist, supervisor, and stylist of the Model A Ford, and the Lincoln as well as many later Ford models. Nearly estranged from his father over the Model A and Unions. Worked hard, played hard, died in 1943. Henry never recovered from Edsel?s death and only lived a short time longer himself.

:

: INNOVATIONS AND STRONG POINTS OF THE MODEL A

: Used for just as many applications as the Model T. First to use Safety Glass in windshield which reduced serious injuries 50 to 60%. First to use Knee Action Hydraulic Shock Absorbers in moderate priced cars. All steel body without wood framework. First to use jigs to hold parts in place while being welded. Combined lightness with strength in the Model A. Used a positive ground system in the electrical system of the Model A.

:

: Ford felt that having a positive grounded system produced less corrosion, less static voltage leaks, and less general corrosion and was better as it lessened the chance of a short circuit from the positive post of the battery to the frame of the car as could happen with a negative grounded system.

: The Model A was so successful that it was built in several other countries including Russia ( GAZ ), and the same basic Model A Ford engine was used up into the 1960?s in the Soviet Military Jeep type vehicle.

: ENGINE, TRANSMISSION, IGNITION, SUSPENSION, BRAKES, AND SHOCK ABSORBERS

: Four Cylinder, L Head, cast en-bloc engine

: Brake Horsepower = 40 ( could range from 44.3 to 47.3 )

: Compression Ratio = 4.1 to 4.3 to 1, with 4.22:1 advertised

: Compression kept low due to poor fuels available and poor drivers, carbon build-up caused by poor ?keroseeny? fuels and higher compression.

: Higher compression

:

: More power, more speed, better economy, but more maintenance, carbon build-up from poor fuel and more engine knock ( pre-detonation ), more blow-by of unburned fuel by rings causing oil dilution and poor lubrication.

:

: New Ignition System, of standard battery coil type

: Three Speed Sliding Gear Transmission

: Knee Action Hydraulic Shock Absorbers on Ford transverse leaf spring suspension

: Combination Thermosyphon and Water Pump Cooling System

: Combination Gravity Feed, Oil Pump and Splash Lubrication System.

: Brakes, four wheel mechanical

:

: BODY TYPES

: Due to high demand for the Model A, Ford found it necessary to sub contract many Model A bodies to the Briggs and Murray automobile body companies. In some years there were both Standard and DeLuxe models of several of the body styles.

: Phaeton ( Touring Car ) AA Truck

: Sport Phaeton Open Cab Pick-up

: Convertible Sedan Closed Cab Pick-up

: Roadster Express Delivery

: Convertible Cabriolet General Utility Van

: Standard Coupe Panel Truck

: Special Coupe Fire Truck

: Sport Coupe Dump Truck

: Victoria Coupe Ambulance

: Business Coupe Hearse

: Tudor Sedan Platform Truck

: Fordor Sedan Stake Truck

: Town Car Ice Truck

: Town Sedan

: Taxi Cab

: Station Wagon

:

: COLOR CHOICES

: Since 1926 Ford had once again began offering colors other than Black on Ford vehicles. Some colors were particular to certain years, body parts, and models, but a great variety was now offered:

: Black ?28-31 Bonnie Gray ?29

: Rock Moss ?29 Seal Brown ?28-30

: Rose Beige ?28-29 Chelsa Blue ?29

: Andalucite Blue ?28-30 Vagabond Green ?29

: Duchess Blue ?28-29 Balsam Green ?29

: Medium Cream ?29 Valley Green ?28-29

: Thorne Brown ?29-31 Old Ivory ?28-31

: Arabian Sand ?28 Dawn Gray ?28

: Gunmetal Blue ?28 Niagara Blue ?28-29

: Copra Drab ?28-31 Apple Green ?29-31

: Elkpoint Green ?29-31 Moleskin Brown ?29-30

: Bronson Yellow ?29-31 Kewanee Green ?29-31

: French Gray ?28-30 Lombard Blue ?31

: Ford Maroon ?29-31 Riviera Blue ?31

: Stone Deep Gray ?31 Stone Brown ?28-29

: Orange ?29-30 Tacoma Cream ?31

: Washington Blue ?31 Brewster Green ?29-31

: Vermillion Red ?29-31 Vineyard Green ?31

: Manilla Brown ?28-31 Chicle Drab ?30-31

: Straw ?29-30

: 39 colors, where from 1914 through 1915 Black, with few exceptions, was the only Ford color available.

:

: FORD ADVERTISING

: Murray Fahnestock

:

: Master of the advertising word and hype

: Lauded Ford?s reasons for doing something a certain way. Usually based on sound engineering principles, but not necessarily the only good way.

: Four cylinder Engines versus 6 cylinder engines, Positive Ground, Transverse Springs, etc.

:

: WORLD SALES

: Five million in U.S. between Oct. 1928 and April 1932.

: Foreign sales records lost but estimated two million built worldwide and production in Russia as the GAZ later for several years after other countries.

: Ford?s best U.S. profit year since 1924 with the Model T, was 1929, 19 ½ million dollar profit. In 1928 Ford lost 17 million dollars due to Model A changeover, retooling and redesign time.

: Ford pressured dealers to sell certain units and accessories, and if they didn?t comply with selling the demands, they would be shipped to them anyway, or their dealerships pulled.

:

: STOCK CRASH ( DEPRESSION )

: The crash started in late October with the worst years being 1931 through 1933. The economy started to slowly recover in 1934.

: Even during the worst of the Depression years Ford averaged 42.5% of all car sales in the U.S.

: Peak auto. Production since 1895 was in 1930, when production fell off approximately 2/3?s until 1934 when the industry began to recover.

: During the worst part of the depression, Ford tried to keep as many workers as possible employed part time, rather than a fewer number full time. Ford had to lower wages significantly to accomplish this.

: March 7, 1932, about 3,000 unemployed workers marched from Detroit to the Rouge Plant to dramatize the plight of unemployment. They were met in Dearborn by tear gas, truncheon wielding Police, fire hoses, and bullets. The demonstrators were, ?Ordinary men and women, out of jobs, and out of the necessities of life?,

: -- Dearborn Press. Many thought the American Communist Party was behind this. Four men were killed. At their funeral on March 11th, a large banner was displayed, ?Ford Gave Them Bullets for Bread?.

: WORK AT FORD

: Work Rules

:

: No talking on the job. Be on time. No smoking. Time and frequency limits on use of Restroom. No leaving workstation early, or without permission.

: ALL THESE WERE FIREABLE OFFENCES WITHOUT WARNING AND NO RECOURSE

: ?Ye get the wages, ye sell your soul at Ford?s --

: Ye?er worked like a slave all day, and when ye get out, ye?re too tired to do anything -- Ye go to sleep on the (street) car coming home, but as it is, once a Ford worker, always a Ford worker? --

: The New Republic, March 1931

:

: MODEL ?B? FORD, 1932

: This car could be bought with a modified 4 cylinder Model A engine with centrifugal spark advance and a fuel pump, or with the new Ford V-8 engine

:

: UCC

: Universal Credit Company, May 3, 1928, Ford?s answer to GMAC ( General Motors Acceptance Corporation ). Prior to this Henry Ford had been dead set against Ford Financing. His philosophy was to build cars people and dealers could buy and not be in debt, but GMAC and others were taking sales from Ford, so he had to compete in this market even though against his will.

: Terms:

:

: One-third down payment that must be paid off in one year at 11 to 12% interest. This interest rate was later dropped to 9 to 12% during the depth of the Depression. The contract also included a Fire and Theft policy for 80% of the cash delivery price of the car. This was not a PL and PD policy.

: Example

: A car with a cash price of $495.00, cost between $539.55, and $554.40. This was about 1/3rd of a year?s pay in those days, and it all had to be paid off in one year. The finance cost was equivalent to about two weeks pay for the average worker.

: Name __________________ Date ______ Per. ____ % ___

:

: MODEL A FORD PARTS IDENTIFICATION TEST

: Write in the correct answer for each numbered component or question. DO NOT MARK ON THE PACKETS YOU WILL BE GIVEN SEPARATELY, RETURN THEM TO YOUR TEACHER WHEN YOU ARER FINISHED. MARK ONLY ON THE ANSWER SHEET. Answer each question by writing in the most correct response. You may work with other people in the class, but it will be your responsibility to know the answer when you are finished. Each question is worth 2%, and there are fifty possible questions. Please keep in mind that the car was built in 1931 and is very valuable, treat it with respect as you are being given a unique opportunity to actually go over a piece of history that not only changed the automobile industry, but world history as well. If in doubt as to touching something, ask, and let common sense be your best guide. If you and your classmates absolutely are unable to figure out what a part does, or is, try to convince Mr. Clawson or Mr. Uhl to help you, but don?t expect either one of them to just give you the answer.

: Don?t mess with the horn. If you want to hear it ASK ! This is one of the few parts on the vehicle that is very expensive, hard to come by and hard to find parts for.

:

: 1. 2. 3.

: 4. 5. 6.

: 7. 8. 9.

: 10. 11. 12.

: 13. 14. 15.

: 16. 17. 18.

: 19. 20. 21.

: 22. 23. 24.

: 25. 26. 27.

: 28. 29. 30.

: 31. 32. 33.

: 34. 35. 36.

: 37. 38. 39.

: 40.

: 41. What type of fuel system does this car use?

: 42. What type of brakes does this car have?

: 43. Where is the engine temperature gauge located on this car.

: 44. How is the engine timing advanced?

: 45. What size tires does this car have?

: 46. Where is the gas tank located?

: 47. What activates the starter motor on this vehicle?

: 48. What type of electrical charging system does this car use?

: 49. What type of spring oscillation dampening system does this automobile use?

: 50. What impressed you most about the Model A Ford?

: Early Automobile History

: The Automobile is responsible for the most profound impact on how we live since the advent of agriculture, 12,000 years ago.

: First non animal powered land vehicle

: Steam wagon, Nicholas Cognot, France 1789

: Most early cars were right hand drive which was a carry over from the buggy days as most people were right handed as well as right footed, and it was easier to apply the wagon brake with the right leg.

: First Internal Combustion Engine

: Ettiene Lenoir, France, 1860

: Ran on illuminating gas ( NG or Methane)

: Very different from today?s engines

: First 4 Cycle, 4 Stroke Engine

: Nicholous Otto, Germany, 1876

: Ottocycle Engine

: First automobile in production

: Karl Benz, Germany, 1885

: mid-engine

: First cars were called Motorcycles

: First known car built in the United States

: Ransom E. Olds, 1886

: Steam powered

: First Production Automobile in the United States

: Duryea Brothers, 1893

: 13 were made that year

: Company later became Stevens, Duryea, Stevens was also Stevens, Fox Firearms

: First Mass Production Automobile in the United States

: Oldsmobile,

: 1901-1902 Curved Dash Oldsmobile

: (The Merry Oldsmobile)

: Alexander Winton

: First Steering Wheel

: Front Engine

: Practical Storage battery

: Franchised Dealers

:

: Most Understated Automobile Industrialist of the Time

: Henry Leland

: Built Engines for Olds

: First High Compression Engines

: Leland?s car became Cadillac after breaking away from Henry Ford

: Pioneer in Interchangeable Parts

: Built Aircraft Engines

: Invented and formed Lincoln Motors

: Pioneer in importance of precision parts machining

: Early Speed Limits

: Detroit

: Speed limit of 8 miles per hour

: Fine of $100.00 (about two months pay)

: Hold over terms from thew horse and buggy days:

: Car = abbreviation of carriage

: Dash Board = from the board on buggies that kept mud, dirt, water, and horse plop from dashing against the driver and passengers

: Fender = to fend off mud and water

: Boot or Trunk = used to store and transport items

: Running Boards = This was a board that ran along the bottom of a vehicle or carriage, used by carriage attendants to stand or ride on and to aide passengers when entering or exiting the vehicle.

: Over 5,000 U.S. car makes up to 1942

: Most Early cars Were Open

: People were used to cold and wet weather

: People were afraid of being trapped in enclosed cars in a roll over

: People were afraid of broken glass in an accident

:

: Industrial Revolution

: 1911?Ford won Sledon Patent case in courts

: Start of his becoming a folk hero

:

: 1913 -- First MOVING assembly line

: Highland Park Plant

: 1914 ? Introduction of

: $5.00 a day wage

: National average = $2.34 a day

: 8 hour work day

: 40 hour work week

: Profit Sharing

: First rebate in automotive history

:

: 1918-- Rouge River Plant

: Ore to automobile in 28 hours

: Pioneered:

: Consumerist Economic Theory

: Ford believed workers should be able to buy what they built

: Lowered price on cars

: Raised wages

: Sold more units

: Enraged fellow industrialists

: Use of Agricultural Products in Automobile Industry

: Soy Bean plastics

: Ore to Product philosophy

: Village Industries ( Cottage Industries)

: Farmers

: Handicapped

: Seasonal Workers

: Home assembly lines

: Better roads and U.S. Highway System

: Dealer franchise for both Sales and Service

: Use of Aviation Technology in the automobile industry

: Ford Tri Motor

: Fliver

: Wind Tunnel

: Aerodynamics

: Ford Perfected:

:

: Eli Whitney?s interchangeable parts methods

:

: George Eastman?s (KODAK) assembly line

:

: Alexander Winton?s dealership franchise for both Sales and Service

: Henry Ford, The Man

: Born July 30, 1863 (the year Lincoln introduced the Emancipation Proclamation) in Dearborn, Michigan to Irish immigrant parents that left Ireland during the Potato Famine

: Start of working career

: Family farm (he hated farming)

: Michigan Car Works

: Apprentice machinist at 16

: Westinghouse Engine Company

: Machinist and Foreman

: Detroit Edison Company

: Engineer

: Detroit Automobile Company

: Founder and stockholder

: Henry Ford Company

: Founder and stockholder

: Ford Motor Company

: Founder and stockholder

: Politics

: Pacifist

: 1914 ? 1915 Peace Ship

: Sought to end WW I by going to Europe and negotiation a settlement along with many other influential Americans

: Much argument amongst the 170 delegates, and efforts failed. Ford locked himself in his stateroom and refused to speak with anyone the rest of the trip.

: Belonged to the Democratic Party ( but a staunch capitalist )

: 1918, Ran for U.S. Senate and narrowly lost

:

: Some thought Ford a:

: Nazi

: Communist He was none of these

: Socialist

: Personality:

: Obstinate in nature and an avowed Penny Pincher, personally and professionally

: Sent employees into junkyards to find Ford parts that didn?t fail; so that these parts could be re-engineered and become less costly to make for the benefit of both Ford and the consumer.

: Ford would become so focused on what he was doing that sometimes he was oblivious of things around him. When he built his Quadracycle, he

: Finished it in the middle of the night, then found that he could not fit it through the door, so he took an axe to the wall of the RENTED brick shed to get it out.

: Ford was obstinate in nature and didn?t really care if he offended people.

:

: Disliked:

: Strong personalities (except in his close friends), Smoking, Drinking, Swearing, Jews, Blacks, Unions, ?College Boys?, Farm Life, School in general ( However, he established many one room schools in rural areas and strongly promoted ?Modern Teaching Methods?, and ?Learning By Doing?, or ?Hands on Learning?

: Ford owned a controversial newspaper, The Dearborn Independent, which printed many anti Jewish articles and was somewhat Pro Nazi. This caused the Ford family a lot of embarrassment.

:

: Believed in:

: Fair treatment and advancement of ALL people up to a point, but Jews and Blacks, etc., should know their place

: Ford had a paternalistic (Fatherly) view of his workers, but would truck no discord, he was adamantly anti Union (He could have easily invented the saying, ?My way or the Highway.)

: Charities and philanthropic pursuits:

: Founded Ford Foundation and supported several others

: Greenfield Village

: Indoor, outdoor museum

:

:

: Did not believe in:

: Unions

: Equality in races

: Credit

: Ford lowered prices on cars and raised wages.

: General Motors gave credit

: By 1925 almost all automobiles sold in the U.S. sold on Credit, still true today.

: Anyone messing with the design of the Model T

: ?If it ain?t broke, don?t fix it.? ( Ford?)

: Ford saying, ? A bore is a fellow who opens his mouth and puts his feets in it.?

: Two events that markedly changed Ford?s life:

:

: 1. Received a watch for his twelfth birthday.

: 2. When he was 12, he saw his first (1875) horseless, steam powered, farm machines.

: A year or so later, he built a working watch and a working model steam ?Road Engine?.

: Close Friends:

:

: Thomas A. Edison

: Inventor

: John Borroughs

: Naturalist and Poet

: Harvey Firestone

: Industrialist and Tire manufacturer

:

: FORD MOTOR COMPANY

: Ford finished his first car, The Quadracycle in June 1896 and sold it to gain capitol for other experiments

:

: Ford Motor Company Founded, July 23, 1903

: First production car sold on that date

:

: Many false starts

: Detroit Auto Company

: Henry Ford Company

: Henry Leland

: Major stockholder who wanted to build high end cars

: Cadillac

: Leland ? became Lincoln

: 1903 -- the sixth Ford car built sold to a Canadian

: 1904, Ford set world record pace in his race car ?OLD 999? at 91 mph

: Car driven by Henry Ford and Barney Oldfield

: Ford went international with Ford Motor Company of Canada

: 1911 Brazil

: 1919 Germany

: 1925 Australia

:

: John and Horace Dodge

: Early investors with in Ford Motor Company

: Built engines and transmissions for Ford

: Lead stockholders revolt in 1917 that lead to Ford family buy out of all stockholders.

: They later formed their own company, Dodge Brothers Auto Company

: 1906 ? Ford family owned 50% of company stock

: 1920 ? Ford family owned 100% of Ford stock

: 1955 -- Ford stock again on the open market

: 1918 -- Almost 50% of cars in the U.S. were Ford

: Almost 50% of new car sales were going to Ford

: Depression years

: Came very close to bankruptcy even with the very popular Model A

: Sales were brisk, but profit margin was low

: First Model A was built in 1905

: Second series was built in 1928 through 1931

: First Profit Sharing

: July 13, 1914

: Ford offered $50.00 (Nationally, over an average month?s pay) to each purchaser if Ford sales topped 300,000 that year, They did.

: Competition very upset

: 1937 -- Battle Of The Overpass

: Walter Ruther, former Ford employee and United Auto Union (UAW) organizer, and other unionists passing out Union pamphlets outside Ford?s Rouge River Plant were attacked and severely beaten by Ford ?Thugs?

: 1941 -- Ford Unionized

: Last major Auto Company to do so

: Henry Ford deeply hurt that 97% of his employees voted for the Union, Ford felt betrayed and never really recovered

:

: Edsel, Henry?s son, developed a lifelong rift over this and Edsel was unable to get his father to accept the Union

: Clara Ford, his wife, finally talked Henry into accepting the Union as she was sick of strikes and violence

: 1932 -- First Low Priced V8

: Alone in the low priced field until 1955

: When Chevrolet and Plymouth brought out low priced V8?s

: Ford was the favored Gangster car

:

: Letters:

: May 16. 1934, Detroit

: Dear Sir,

:

: While I still have got breath in my lungs I will tell you what a dandy car you make. I have drove Fords exclusively when I could get away with one. For sustained speed and freedom from trouble the Ford has got every other car skinned, and even if my business hasent been strictly legal it don?t hurt enything to tell you what a fine car you got in the V8.

: Yours truly

: Clyde Champion Barrow

: #2

: Hello Old Pal. Arrived here at 10:00 AM today. Would like to drop in and see you. You have a wonderful car. Been driving it for weeks. It?s a treat to drive one. Your slogan should be, drive a ford and watch the other cars fall behind you. I can make any other car take a Ford?s dust!

: Bye-bye,

: John Dillinger (This letter was later proven to be a hoax)

:

: World War I

: Built aircraft engines for the British

: World War II

: Built;

: Jeeps, Aircraft Engines, B24 Liberator Bombers, Superchargers, Gliders, tanks, Armored cars, Engines for Robot Bombs (early guided missiles)

:

: MODEL ?T? FORD

:

: OCTOBER 1, 1908 (1909 Model)

: The start of the Industrial Revolution

: 1,800 built first year

: Early models had a base price for the Touring car of $850.00

: First 1,100 had two pedals and one lever for reverse gear.

: 1909 to 1911

: Body mostly wood, then sheet metal over a wood frame

: Open valve Engines

: High Compression 4.5:1 @ 60 PSI and 22 Horsepower

: First 2,500 had centrifugal water pumps

: PRODUCTION

: 1908 = 100 cars a day

: 1927 = 1220 cars a day,

: One every 28 seconds

: 28 hours from raw ore to finished car

: Longest run of same, basic model until the Volkswagen, 1908 to 1927

: 15 million were built in the United States

: 17,750,000 worldwide in 19 years with very few changes mechanically

: LOWEST PRICE

: Full sized Touring Car = 1923 $265.00

: Roadster = 1926 $260.00

: EARLY MODELS DID NOT HAVE

: Speedometers, Temperature Gauges, Pressure Gauges, Bumpers,

: Water Pumps (except first 2,500, or aftermarket),

: Starters ( optional in 1919 )

: Demountable Rims (1919)

: Windshield Wiper, Hand Operated (1924)

: A woman, Mary Anderson, invented these

: in 1903 and they were standard

: equipment on many cars by 1913

: Balloon Tires (1924)

: Shock Absorbers

: Electric tail lights

: Turn signals

: Stop lights

: Horns

: ACCESSORIES

: Over 5,000 aftermarket accessories built for Model T?s

: ATTRIBUTES

: Small, Light, Inexpensive, Reliable, Efficient, Easily Adaptable to other uses, Anyone Can Drive one, Anyone Can Repair One, Anyone can maintain one

: DETRACTANTS

: No Financing as with General Motors, Noisy, Unsafe, Uncomfortable, Ugly, Gravity Fed Fuel System (sometimes you had to back up steep hills), Underpowered

: FIRSTS

: First truly mass produced automobile with left hand drive, which set the standard for most of the world

: Camper

: Station Wagon

:

: Hack (cab)

: Vehicle to use Vanadium steel alloy in gears, axles etc, which advanced toughness of vehicles immeasurably

: Rear View Mirror

:

: SAID OF MODEL T

: ?You can take it anywhere, but into polite society?

: ?The Model T is fundamentally drab, uncompromisingly erect, unquestionably ugly and it combines the webfootedness of a Duck with the agility of a Mountain Goat.?

: ?Open Your Eyes and watch the Fords go by.?

: COMMON NICKNAMES (Repeatable in polite company)

: Universal Car, Tin Lizzie, Fliver, Henry?s Monster, Jitney, Heap, Henry?s Heap, Fix Or Repair Daily, Found On Road Dead

:

: COMMONLY KNOWN AS

: The car that put the world on wheels.

:

: A car anyone could own, anyone could, drive, anyone could repair.

: America?s everymans car

: The Ubiquitous Model T

: The Go Anywhere Car.

: The Common man?s Car.

: MODEL T?s USED FOR

: Plow fields, pleasure riding, general transportation, Fire Trucks, Ambulances, Delivery Vehicles, Hearses, Snowmobiles, Railroad Vehicles, to saw wood, split wood, pump water, store grain, run stock shears, generate electricity, hoist objects

: The first snowmobile made by Armond Bombardier, (Ski Doo), was built from a Model T Ford.

:

: MOST UNSAFE MOTOR VEHICLE EVER MASS PRODUCED (arguable)

:

: Crankshaft kickbacks

: Many sharp and pointed objects inside passenger compartment as well as on the outside of the vehicle that people could strike or be struck by.

: Plate Glass Windows

: Convex Steering Wheel

: Small Mechanical Emergency Brakes, only on two rear wheels.

: Band Brake in transmission

: Gas Tank under seat, or later in front cowl

: Hot water burns from radiator boil and overheating

: No windshield wipers, until 1924

: Non return lever Throttle (Accelerator)

: Poor Lighting

: No spring dampening

: Model ?T? SPECIFICATIONS

: BRAKES

: Two Sets

: Rear Wheels Only, Emergency Brake, band brake in transmission for normal braking, both sets mechanical

: CLUTCH

: Steel Disks In Oil bath

: CONTROL

: All Speeds (GEARS) Forward And Reverse By Foot Pedals

: Spark and Throttle

: Under Steering Wheel

: Non Return Moveable Settings for Each

: COOLING

: Thermo Syphon and Fan

: Except in first 2,500, which also had a water pump, as well as aftermarket adaptations

: FINAL DRIVE

: By carbon steel drive shaft with single Universal Joint to Bevel Geared Differential, to Live Axle

: INGITION

: Ford magneto Generator and dry cell battery (for starting only)

: Later, magneto generator and battery. Generator for Wet Cell battery.

:

: LUBRICATION

: Splash and Gravity System

: MOTOR (ENGINE)

: 4 cylinder, 4 stroke, 20 Horsepower ( 1909 to 1917 = 22 Horsepower) @ 1,500 RPM in High Range.

: Compression Ratio

: 3.98: 1 @ 45 PSI (1909 to 1917 = 4.5:1 @ 60 PSI)

: Bore and Stroke

: 3 ¾? X 4?

:

: Cylinders

: Cast in one block (en block) with upper half of crank case integral with water jackets

: Cylinder Head

: Detachable

: Castings

: Fine grain Gray Iron

: WHEEL BASE

: 100? with 56? Tread ( 60? for Southern Roads where ordered )

:

: TRANSAMISSION

: Ford Spur Planetary, bathed in oil

: All gears of Vanadium Steel Alloy

: The planetary transmission was the basis for modern automatic transmissions, but Ford was not interested, and the first truly automatic transmission was the GM Hydromatic in the 1938 Oldsmobile

: FUEL SYSTEM

: Gravity Fed

: ENGINE TORQUE

: Best at 23 mph

: MAXIMUM HORSEPOWER

: 20 to 22, depending on year, at 35 mph

: TOP SPEED

: 55 mph

: RECOMMENDED CRUISING SPEED

: 35 to 37 mph

: COLOR OPTIONS

: 1909 to 1913 (depending on model and year)

: Carmine Red, Pearl Gray, French Gray, Midnight Blue, Brewster Green, Black

: 1914 to 1925

: You could order any color you wanted as long as it was Black.

: This is a generalization as it was occasionally possible to get other colors, but most were black.

: Other colors during the ?Black Years? that original factory invoiced have been seen on were, Dark Green, Dark Blue, Dark Brown, and Red. These invoices were from dealers in Montana and Idaho and seen by Bert Harrison, a noted Model T expert in Oregon.

:

:

: Reasons for Black Japan were:

: Paint of that day took upwards of a week to dry and was applied by dipping, brush, pressure roller, or drip method, which left higher areas with a thinner coat, and lower areas with a far thicker coat of paint.

: The Black Japan finish would generally dry within a day or so.

: Cars could be finished several days faster by using the Black Japan finish, so more cars could be finished and for sale faster using this method.

: Main reason though, was Black was cheaper.

: 1926 and 1927

: Black, Channel Green, Commercial Green, Highland Green, Phoenix Brown, Moleskin Brown, Royal or Windsor Maroon, Gunmetal Blue, Fawn Gray

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Wow - what a treasure. Although not a teacher - for the last 10 years or so I have been invited by our Middle School history teacher to bring my Model T and A in for a show and tell about Fords impact on the industrial revolution. You just gave me some great material to incorporate into my lesson plan. Thank you.

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